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Digital Marketing

Latest Digital Marketing Interview Questions and Answers 2022

Table of Contents

Digital Marketing is a field offering new scope and challenges. We know your eagerness to get onto the online marketing bandwagon. And, you are all set to attend a Digital Marketing Interview.

But you have no clue regarding the kind of questions you will face. Cast off your worries. We offer a list of digital marketing interview questions. We provide the answers too. These questions are for both freshers and experienced.


Read them through to be all set to face the interview.
The purpose of reading this blog is to,
● Have a knowledge of the common questions asked
● To know the analysis-based questions
● Relevant questions for all types of roles in Digital Marketing

Q1 Where do we start with digital marketing?

Marketing is about understanding and meeting your clients’ needs profitably. Digital marketing, which is also
known as internet marketing, i-marketing, web marketing, online marketing, or marketing, is about marketing
products or services over the Internet or via mobile technology.
Digital marketing techniques include search engine marketing (SEM), search engine optimisation (SEO), email
marketing, viral marketing, blogging, micro-blogging, podcasting, vodcasting, photo and video sharing, social
networking, virtual worlds and mobile phone campaigns using SMS.
Digital marketing tools include applications such as:
• WordPress and Blogger (blogging).
• Twitter (microblogging).
• Facebook and LinkedIn (social networking).
• Second Life (virtual worlds).
• Flickr and YouTube (photo and video sharing).
• Google Analytics(monitoring results).
Seven years ago, when we asked businesspeople, “Do you have a company website?”, not everyone could say
“Yes”. Today, to be without a website provokes a reaction of disbelief. To be in business, you need a web
presence. We believe that, within the next five years, companies will adopt digital marketing in the same way.
The key issue is getting started.
You must decide:
• How does digital marketing fit within your overall marketing plan / budget?
• What do you want to achieve through digital marketing?
• Who do you want to talk to?
• How much time can you allocate?
• Who in your company can manage and monitor this activity?
• What’s the likely payback – and when?
Digital marketing enables small businesses to compete with bigger businesses, as any company of any size can
gain instant – and usually free – access to a range of digital marketing tools online.
But there’s a learning curve in understanding the mechanics of the various techniques and tools – and a payback
curve in seeing tangible financial benefit for your business. Nonetheless, the increasing number of stories of
business being won or sales being made through Twitter, Facebook or other tools means that you cannot afford
to ignore digital marketing.
Start by dipping your toe in the water through Twitter or, if you have more time, go for a blog. Better still,
combine the two (we assume you already have a website!).

Q2 What are the advantages and disadvantages of digital marketing?


Digital marketing provides businesses with the opportunity to communicate with a vast, global, audience at a
low – usually, free – entry cost.
The advantages of digital marketing include:
• It is comparatively inexpensive for the target audience numbers involved.
• You can create instant campaigns to address hot topics.
• You can try different forms of advertising and assess the results.
• You can display videos demonstrating the product or service.
• It can be highly personalised (ads on specific websites, SMS direct to the individual’s desk, handbag or
pocket).
• You can show feedback from happy customers (great opportunities for hotels / accommodation with
review websites, such as TripAdvisor – but you also can add a feedback section on your own website).
• You can measure and monitor responses to ad campaigns at the click of a mouse.
• You can see exactly how many people opened an enewsletter and when, and what further action (if any)
they took.
The disadvantages of digital marketing include:
• There can be many legal issues to consider, as compliance varies according to your location and the
technique used – from ads on Facebook to emailshots.
• Delivery of emailshots can be blocked or registered as spam.
• It can be wasted on customers with limited or no internet connectivity.
• There is still no ability to touch or smell products online.
• You are dependent on your customers’ technology; their computer and internet connections are outside
your control.
However, the greatest challenge is the willingness (or otherwise!) of senior managers to adopt digital marketing.

Q3 What is search engine optimisation?


Search engines, such as Google and Bing, use mathematical algorithms or formulae to analyse a user’s question or search query in order to provide web pages that attempt to most closely answer the question or relate to the search term. Search engine optimisation (SEO) ensures that your website is constructed in such a way that your webpages are seturned first (or on the first results page) for any relevant search, since most users rarely look much beyond the first page of search results.
SEO seeks to understand the search engines’ algorithms (which change constantly) and to meet their criteria. In this way, an optimised website achieves ‘naturally high’ search responses and therefore has less need for paid advertising to bring traffic to it. For example, the Home Swapper website contains relevant links and, as a result, generates high search results ranking and thus significant traffic.
Unless your website is regularly listed within the first page of search results for relevant search terms /
keywords, its search engine ‘ranking’ probably needs to be improved. Follow the guidelines in the checklist on the next page.
You will also find guidance from the search engines at the sites below:
• Google Webmaster tools: http://www.google.com/webmasters/checklist.
• Search Engine Optimization Made Easy: http://www.seome.org.
• Bing Webmaster Tools: http://www.bing.com/toolbox/webmasters.
You need to be able to answer “Yes” to these questions:
Checklist Y/N
Has your website been submitted to Google, MSN / Bing and Yahoo!?
Has your web developer excluded ‘Flash’ or ‘frames’ from the website design?
Does your website contain a site map?
Does each page contain key phrases likely to be used by searchers?
Does your website contain relevant links to and from your site?
Do you monitor your website and where it appears in search engine results?


If you decide to use a SEO consultant:
• Ask for references from his / her previous clients and check them out.
• Recognise that you will need to commit to working with them for six to 12 months, as SEO takes time.
• Agree a budget and target results before you start.

Q5 What is social networking?


Social networking provides a way to connect people of similar interests, regardless of geography, on a website. A wide range of social networking sites provide networking tools for individuals (both personally and professionally) and for businesses, depending on the site, as well as offering a platform for friends and family to keep up with each other. Some of the most important sites are: Site User profile Users(and source) Bebo Mainly personal rather than business-to- business.

Described as ‘MySpace meets Facebook, with video-sharing and built-in Skype’.

40 million (Bebo, via www.web-strategist.com, November 2008). Ecademy For businesspeople who connect online on the website and offline at events and meetings.

500,000 unique users per month (Ecademy, August 2009). How Online community that allows visitors to
research, share, and discuss instructional solutions that help complete day-to-day tasks and projects.

23 million unique visitors (comScore, July 2009); over 45 million (internal data, www.demandmedia.com).

Facebook

Mainly personal rather than business-to-business but increasing number of businesses creating
‘pages’ for branding. Less than one-third students; fastest growing demographic is 35 years+ 250 million (Facebook, August 2009); 276 million (comScore, March 2009). Flickr Online photo management and sharing application.

2 million images and 26 million unique visitors (Compete.com, July 2009). Hi5 One of the largest social entertainment web sites. 43% users aged 15 to 24.

80 million registered accounts and c.46 million unique users per month (Hi5, August 2009).

LinkedIn

Business-to-business focus, aimed at professionals. Represents 170 industries and 200 countries.

45 million (LinkedIn, August 2009). MySpace Mainly personal rather than business-to-
busines. 30% aged 15 to 24. 200 million (comScore, March 2009).

Plaxo
Pulse Online address book with social networking. 40 million (Plaxo, August 2009).

Plurk

Similar to Twitter, a free social networking and micro-blogging service that allows users to send updates (called ‘plurks’) through short messages or links, up to 140 characters. Not known – c.250,000 unique visitors (Compete.com, February 2009).

SlideShare

Allows uploading and sharing of PowerPoint presentations, Word documents and Adobe PDFs.
Users are highly-educated (62% college degree; 19% Masters or PhD); affluent (25%+ earn $100K+/year); adult (64% 35 years+ and 32% 18 to 34). 17 million unique visitors (SlideShare, August 2009).

Twitter

A mix of personal and business-to-business. Micro-blogging allows users to send updates (called ‘tweets’) through short messages or links, up to 140 characters.

44.5 million unique visitors (http://www.businessinsider.com/chart-of-the-day-
twitters-boom-around-the-world-2009-8). Xing.com Alternative to LinkedIn in Germany; English version available. 8 million (Xing, August 2009). Site User profile Users(and source)

YouTube

Video-sharing website. User base is broad in age range, 18 to 55, evenly divided between males and females, spanning all geographies. 71 million unique users per month (YouTube, August 2009).

HINT: Not all social networks are suitable for all businesses. You need to decide which networks match
your business’s needs and start exploring.

Q6 What is viral marketing?


Viral marketing is a newer marketing technique that encourages recipients to pass on information – and so, like a virus, the message spreads. Viral marketing involves creating emails, videos, podcasts, photos or slideshows, which you then share among your friends and add to social media sharing sites (such as YouTube and Facebook). For viral marketing to be successful, you need to encourage the receiver to send your message on to their friends or colleagues. This means that the message or information needs to be:
• Interesting or amusing.
• Creative or different.
• Special or secret.
The reason viral marketing has become successful is due to ease of use. Once the message has been created, it can be passed from one person to another simply by someone hitting the ‘forward’ button. Distribution of the message is free and can capture a worldwide audience within hours.
Successful viral marketing campaigns include:
• Free software such as Hotmail.com, which provides free email accounts that include advertising
messages in the emails. Every time a user sends an email, they’re spreading the word for Hotmail.
• Ads or videos promoting a brand,such as the Touch of Gold video featuring the footballer Ronaldinho
training in his Nike footwear.
• Smaller companies like Blendtec, which re-launched its food blender by videoing its chief executive
blending everyday items(including an iPhone!) and then adding the video to YouTube.
• Social media websites such as Facebook, MySpace and LinkedIn that encourage you to get your friends
and colleagues to join.

Q7 What is Twitter?


Twitter is about answering the question, “What are you doing?”, in less than 140 characters, via texting, instant message, or the web. (To put this in context, that first sentence above is 135 characters.) A message on Twitter is known as a ‘tweet’ and people adding messages are said to be ‘tweeting’.
Twitter started in 2006 and gained momentum in 2009 when Oprah Winfrey started tweeting. Popular with celebrities and politicians, Twitter is now being used by journalists, big brands, local councils, sports clubs and smaller businesses, as well as individuals in all walks of life. Increasingly, Twitter is being used by businesses worldwide to communicate with customers, potential customers and influencers.
In July 2009, the New York Times reported that Curtis Kimball, a street vendor selling crème brûlées in San Francisco, had noticed someone new in the queue. When he asked how the customer had heard about the food cart, the answer was “he had read about it on Twitter”. Now Kimball tweets daily, letting customers know where to find him. Communicating with so few words means that you need to be succinct. It also means that a form of Twitter shorthand has developed
Twitter is free of charge, but does require some time to get to grips with. You need to:
• Decide how you can best use Twitter (to raise your profile, engage customers, gain feedback,
promote new products).
• Create a Twitter account.
• Start tweeting.
• Gain followers and follow other people.

HINT: If you’re struggling to stay within 140 characters, there are tools to help you shorten your
comments or weblinks, such as TinyURL, ShortURL, Bit.ly, Ow.ly or Tweetdeck.

Q8 What can Twitter do for our business?


Many people do not understand Twitter initially – they just ‘don’t get it’. Frequent questions and comments
include “What is the point?” and “It’s such a waste of time”. But one of the fastest-growing business segments
online is creating applications to make Twitter more useful for companies.
Today, Twitter adds value to businesses in the following ways:
• Comments on Twitter are indexed by Google within hours, improving your search profile.
• Your tweets can drive traffic to your website.
• Twitter gives you direct contact with journalists and editors.
• Company news can be seen by journalists and potential customers as it happens.
• You have contact with people who may not normally take your phonecall.
• Promotional messages can be promoted to a wider audience than your existing customers, with the
explicit endorsement of those who retweet them.
• Twitter raises your company’s online profile.
In addition, using Twitter you can:
• Promote time-limited offers – the last few seats for a movie starting in 30 minutes time, for example.
• Create and organise events online and ‘tweetups’ offline – using Twtvite.
• Make coupons for special offers for Twitter customers – using Twtqpon.
• Post jobs and get applications online via Twitter – on Twtjobs.
• Provide customer service and gain feedback from customers on products or services.
• Test and promote new products.
• Build mailing lists.
• Piggy-back on current events and provide a relevant offer – for example, forehead thermometers to
check for swine flu.
• Create a Twitter business card – Twtbizcard.
• Have conversations with customers.
• Monitor your brand.
HINT: Don’t forget that whatever tweets you add to Twitter will be there forever. Be careful about
making any angry outbursts about other people or companies, as Twitter allows users to search on
both positive and negative comments.

Q9 How can we use Twitter to market our business / products / services?


Using Twitter, or any online tool, should be part of a wider marketing plan. Rather than considering a specific
tool in isolation, think about your objectives and what your company is trying to achieve.
For example, your business may wish to:
• Find new customers.
• Make friends / contacts with journalists.
• Provide ‘followers’ with special offers.
• Build a larger mailing list.
• Drive traffic to your website or blog.
• Share photos, video clips or podcasts with a wider audience.
• Promote new products or services.
• Manage customer services.
• Recruit staff.
Once you have decided what you want to achieve, you can decide your approach.
Good business tweets need to be informative, useful and / or good enough to share. You can tweet about:
• New products or services (not hard sell).
• New blog posts.
• Asking or answering a question.
• Facts and figures.
• Local breaking news.
• Information that may be of interest to your customers / followers.
• Your availability to meet people at exhibitions, conferences or other public meetings.
In addition, you can repeat someone else’s tweet (re-tweet).
The best way to manage Twitter is to allocate 10 minutes at the start of your day to update what you are doing.
Note that if you open a Twitter account and don’t use it, Twitter will close it.

HINT: If you add a web link to your website into a tweet, consider organising a dedicated landing page
for the link so that you can measure the traffic from Twitter.

Q10 How can we use Twitter for market research?


The latest trends or topics are discussed on Twitter, as it captures breaking news, up-to-the-minute themes and
most recent ideas from people all over the world.
You can use Twitter to:
• Research your own company.
• Find out what people think about your competitors.
• Ask questions of your followers and others – Polldaddy for Twitter.
• Add polls to your website, Twitter or Facebook page – Twtpoll.
• Find customers in your areas – NearbyTweets.
• Find groupsthat may be relevant to your business – Twibes.
• See which groups your followers have joined – Twitree.
• Find businesses, entrepreneurs and investors on Twitter – TwtBiz.
Searches on Twitter may bring up hundreds of responses. To narrow your search, you can use the following
shorthand:
Tool Example Will only provide results
“ ” “marketing plan” Containing the exact phrase “marketing plan”.

#marketing Containing the hashtag #marketing.

from: from:brianokane Of tweets sent from Brian O’Kane.
to: to:annmariehanlon Of tweets sent to Annmarie Hanlon.
near: “coffee shop” near: “Cork” Containing your search term: coffee shop, near Cork.
OR london OR dublin Containing the words London or Dublin or both.

  • ireland – dublin Containing the word Ireland but not Dublin.
    🙂 Coffee 🙂 Containing the word coffee and with a positive attitude.
    🙁 Coffee 🙁 Containing the word coffee and with a negative attitude.

HINT: If you are conducting research and need answers from a larger pool of people, ask followers to
retweet (RT) to get more potential responders to your questions: ‘Do you prefer customer service
online or by telephone? Pls RT!’.

Other useful Twitter-related websites include: Hashtags, which shows the latest Twitter topics; Tweetzi, a
Twitter search engine; Twitscoop or Twitturly, for latest trends on Twitter; and Twitterment, a Twitter search
engine.

Q11 What is Facebook?


Facebook is a social networking website that allows people to stay in touch with friends and family, current and past colleagues, post photos online, share and organise events. Started by college students in the US in 2004, Facebook now claims over 250 million members worldwide – almost as many as the population of the USA, making it (if it were a country) the 4th largest country in the world.
Membership of Facebook is free but you need to register and create a user name and password. This creates your personal Facebook ‘profile’.
If you plan to use Facebook for your business, you should select a business account, which gives you the ability to create a Facebook ‘page’. Pages are designed for businesses only, to share information, to interact with customers / fans and to create a brand presence on Facebook.
Facebook features include:
Feature What this does Wall The key area to share information about your profile and for adding new things, like photos, videos and notes. Links Allows you to add links to other websites, podcasts, etc.
Photos Here you can add and see photos, which may include ‘tags’ with notes about who is in the photo and what they’re doing. Newsfeed This is a personalised information update, which can show updates from your Wall, links and photos, as well as shared comments between friends and information about forthcoming events such as a friend’s birthday.
Facebook is being used successfully by many groups and associations to promote their causes and to recruit new supporters. The Bat Conservation Trust, for example, uses Facebook as a tool to keep supporters informed, share details of events and encourage fans to donate online. Charities and people seeking sponsorship can add a charity payment site, such as JustGiving.com or theBigGive, into their Facebook pages to monitor how much money has been raised.


Using Facebook pages, businesses can:


• Create content for Facebook users.
• Add photos of products.
• Provide special offers.
Customers or non-customers can become ‘fans’ and they can display information about your business on their Wall, receive your updates and start engaging in conversations. Additionally, their friends can see your information and could also become fans. Facebook claims that more than 3 million users become fans of Facebook pages every day.
Facebook now offers usernames for Facebook pages, which means companies can have a personalised URL for their page – for example, the Evonomie Facebook page URL is www.facebook.com/evonomie. To qualify for this format (as opposed to the standard www.facebook.com/pages/Evonomie/22321854878), a page must have a minimum number of fans (currently, 25 for newly-created pages).
If you want to share an event on Facebook, you can create a ‘group’.
One of the reasons that Facebook’s popularity continues to grow is its availability on mobile phones like the iPhone. There’s a downside to its popularity, though – many businesses have become unhappy about the amount of time their staff are spending on Facebook during the working day, which emphasises the need for a ‘social networking policy’.

Q 12. What are Facebook fans and why do we need them?


A Facebook fan is someone who has found a business or brand page that interests them and has clicked on the ‘become a fan’ button. Fans are your Facebook database. They can be sent ‘updates’ about new products,
special offers and latest news.
When someone joins your page as a fan, this information is published in their News Feed, which all their friends can see, thus spreading the word about your company or brand. The more fans you have, the greater the profile you get.
In addition, if you have more than 25 fans, Facebook will change your page’s URL to http://www.facebook.com/yourbusinessname, which makes it easier to find. Pages are useful because:
• They are public and can be found via search engines. Most of Facebook is hidden behind a login, but
pages are available to everyone.
• Links can be added, which can drive traffic to your blog, website or other online presence, creating further opportunities for viral marketing. However, it requires work to build your database of fans. Your Twitter followers are a good starting point, especially if they retweet your appeal for Facebook fans to their followers.

Q 13. What can Facebook do for our business?

Facebook can be used for:
• Creating brand awareness.
• Gaining reviews from happy customers.
• Defusing feedback from unhappy customers.
• Conducting research.
• Testing products and services.
• Recruiting staff.
Businesses can use Facebook to stay in touch with former staff, to share plans and ideas and to run recruitment drives. Brands can carry out research with their ‘fans’. You can use Facebook as a trial or test centre, getting feedback on new ideas and providing early access (sneak peeks) to new advertising campaigns and special offers.
Depending on your audience, a Facebook campaign may make more commercial sense than other dvertising options: Gap clothing has dropped TV ads in favour of a dedicated campaign on Facebook (InsideFacebook.com, 19 August 2009). Facebook provides guidance online on how to set up a Facebook advertising campaign.

HINT: Be aware that any posts you make on your company page on Facebook also appear in your
personal profile!

Q 14. How can we use Facebook to market our business / products / services?


With over 250 million members worldwide, Facebook provides opportunities to communicate with many
different groups of people.
There are two options for businesses:
• To create a page and generate fans through other fans, by using viral marketing.
• To create a page and use Facebook Ads.
Generating fans through viral marketing requires time and effort to add interesting content, such as podcasts,
YouTube videos, or special offers, which existing fans will share with their friends.
Facebook gathers lots of personal information about its users and uses this to allow businesses to target
advertising to specific users by:
• Location.
• Age (by default, Facebook targets only users aged 18 and older).
• Birthday.
• Gender.
• Keywords.
• Education.
• Company, organisation or other workplace.
• Relationship status.
• With certain interests.
Options for advertising on Facebook are ‘pay per click’ (also known as ‘cost per click’ or CPC) or ‘pay for views’
(known as ‘cost per mille’, ‘cost per thousand impressions’ or CPM). You can set maximum bids and daily limits.
Advertising on Facebook is controversial, as many users are unhappy at being targeted based on their personal information, especially when that information is used to create ads on their friends’ profiles. In July 2009, Facebook stated it “occasionally pairs advertisements with relevant social actions from a user’s friends to create Facebook Ads. Facebook Ads make advertisements more interesting and more tailored to you and your friends. These respect all privacy rules. You may opt out of appearing in your friends’ Facebook Ads below”. However, this was interpreted by users as “Facebook agreed to let third party advertisers use your posted photos WITHOUT your permission”. The controversy reflects the tension between users’ desire for free social networking and the site-owners’ desire to monetise the community they have created.
If you are selling products to consumers, Facebook can help to raise your brand profile, to drive traffic to a sales website and potentially to generate new customers. If you are selling business to business, consider LinkedIn instead.

Q 15. How can we use Facebook for market research?


Developers have created Facebook applications (apps), mostly free, that allow businesses to conduct surveys,
votes, polls and quizzes. Facebook also provides polls to get quick answers to simple questions.

To start a Facebook poll, you:
• Log into Facebook.
• Click on Facebook Applications, search for ‘poll’ and decide which application you prefer.
• Add your chosen application to your page.
• Edit your page and open the poll application.
• Type a simple question.
• Return to your page and publish the poll.

HINT: If you create multiple polls for a page, only the most recent one will be on display.

Q 16. What is LinkedIn?

LinkedIn is an online social network, whose aim is to connect professionals locally, nationally and internationally.
Today, LinkedIn claims 45 million members from over 200 countries.
Basic membership is free and allows you to:
• Create a profile about your work, qualifications and experience.
• Demonstrate your expertise by gaining recommendations from colleagues and customers.
• Connect with current and past colleagues, customers and contacts.
• Ask questions of experts.
• Answer questions in your specialist area.
• Check out people you are going to meet.
• Search for people in specific companies.
• Post job requests and find people to work with.
The power of Linkedin lies in connecting with other people, who are known as your ‘connections’. You add
connections by inviting people to connect to you – the process requires you to show that you already know the person you want to connect to (LinkedIn forbids direct approaches to people you do not know) – or by being invited by other people to connect to them. LinkedIn provides tools to help you find people you may know on the network.
Once connected to you, your connections are listed in your profile. They can see what are you working on when you answer the question ‘What are you working on now?’ in less than 140 characters and can see your other connections (you can restrict who sees this list).
You can enhance your profile by asking your connections for ‘recommendations’ and by connecting to ‘groups’ of people with similar interests within LinkedIn.
Potential customers may check you out on LinkedIn before making direct contact. Reading what other people have said about you (your recommendations) is more powerful than reading what your company says on its corporate website. LinkedIn shows what other people say about you and highlights the company you keep.

Q 17. How can we use LinkedIn to market our business / products / services?


People buy from other people, not from companies, especially when they are buying services. LinkedIn is an ideal marketing tool for the solo consultant / knowledge-worker who sells their time, skills and expertise. Your profile allows you to showcase your experience and expertise, your recommendations testify to this, and your connections spread the word. Where your aim in using LinkedIn is to market your business, or its products and services, rather than yourself, you need to add a company page.
In addition, you can create a ‘group’ on LinkedIn – perhaps a user interest group, or a group of key people in the same industry – which will add to your profile and connections.
There are many examples of LinkedIn generating sales for companies – for example, Mathew Smart at Ace
Embroidery uses LinkedIn to provide updates and offers to his connections. In addition, companies have used
LinkedIn to:
• Recruit key staff, basing the initial contact on the person’s LinkedIn profile.
• Identify businesses for acquisition.
• Identify suppliers, based on their expertise shown in answering questions.

HINT: When you meet people at networking events and swap business cards, suggest you connect via
LinkedIn as this provides more information about both parties and highlights any potential
opportunities to work together or refer the person to another contact.

You could use LinkedIn to market your business, and its products and services, in several ways:
Tactic How Raising your company profile

Complete your profile, adding plenty of detail (and a photo) and asking customers and colleagues for
recommendations.
Use your ‘Professional Headline’ well. Many people just add in their job title, but this rarely properly
describes the person or the company. You have a maximum of 120 characters to make your statement –
for example, Author of ‘Quick Win Marketing’, trainer, marketing strategist, planner & consultant at
Evonomie.net in UK & Ireland (101 characters).
Then add a company page. Click on ‘Companies’ in the top navigation bar, ‘Add a Company’ and follow the
instructions.
Improve your profile by providing more details about your company’s services and products.
Recommendations from your connections about great services you have delivered (or recommendations
you write about other companies) show up in your connections’ updates.

Driving traffic to your website

LinkedIn can drive traffic to your website, as it appears to be searched frequently by Google.
Ways to attract Google’s attention include: ask or answer questions; update your profile (not your status)
and add a company page.

Starting groups Plato.ie, a business support network, uses LinkedIn to establish groups, to send messages to members and to promote its events.

Q18 How can we use LinkedIn for market research?


You can do your own market research among your own connections in LinkedIn by sending them a message.
You also can use the search function on LinkedIn to identify people in different industries or industry sectors, in different jobs, companies or locations. However, unless the people you identify are already connections of yours, you cannot contact them directly. Therefore, you will need to spend time reaching out through your existing contacts to these people, seeking to connect to them, before you can contact them. A simpler way of reaching people you don’t know on LinkedIn is to use surveys conducted directly by LinkedIn,
which provide:
• Access to professionals.
• Deeper insights through better targeting.
• Respondents by title, seniority, function, age, country, company size.
• Large populations of quality B2B professionals across difficult-to-reach industries, geographies and
functions.
LinkedIn’s ‘Rules of Member Engagement’ only permit surveys where:
• At least 50% of the targeted members will be eligible.
• The survey is easy to use and does not contain errors.
• The survey takes less than 15-20 minutes.
• The survey complies with market research standards.
• The survey’s focus is professional rather than personal.
The way LinkedIn charges for surveys depends on:
• Number of completed surveys needed.
• Length of interview.
• Seniority level of the target audience.
• Country /location of respondents.
• Timeframe for response.


Costs vary depending on what is needed, but examples include:
• 10 minute survey to 200 respondents working in companies with a turnover of $20 million or more:
charge = $150.
• 20 minute survey to 200 telecom executives about open source mobile applications: charge = $89.
The respondents are often incentivised by offering a free copy of the research or a donation to a charity on their behalf.

Q19 What is Ecademy?
Similar to LinkedIn, Ecademy is a business social network founded in 1998. It sees itself as a ‘wine bar rather
than a conference’. Ecademy’s 500,000 members are said to be more UK-based, compared to LinkedIn which
has its highest concentration of members in the US.
Ecademy offers three levels of membership:
Membership level Cost Benefits
Member Free. Online profile.

Feature in NetNews detailing actions or posts made on Ecademy
and elsewhere on the Web.

PowerNetworkerTM £10 per month (prices vary by

country).

As above, plus:
Advert-free pages.
Better search engine optimisation with additional keywords.
Discounts on events.
Start and run an unlimited number of clubs.
Earn commission on those who are invited and pay for
membership.

BlackStar £140.00 per month (prices vary by country).

As above, plus:
Attend BlackStar-only events.
Discounts on training.
Other tools such as auto-responders to send messages to people
seeing your profile. Higher profile in Ecademy.

Q20 How can we use Ecademy to market our business / products / services?

Ecademy provides its users with visibility and credibility. Reputations are shared – as on LinkedIn – and users can connect through online networking and offline at business networking events. The main benefits are mostly for paying members and include:
Benefit Detail
Make new contacts & find work Have an online profile – tell others about yourself and what you do.
Join clubs / business groups based around expertise and topics.
Search for former colleagues.
Ask for introductions through ‘friends of friends’.
Online networking – exchange messages with other members through the private
messaging system.

Post adverts in the Marketplace which are seen by other Ecademy members and visitors. Automatic search engine submission gives listings high visibility on Google and other search engines. Receive optional email alerts when another member visits your listings – for immediate follow-up.

Get business support and advice

Post and respond to blogs – ask questions, debate topics, share business advice and
offer help.
Join topic specific networking groups and interact with other members who have the
expertise you seek.
Search tools help you to find members with specific skills or knowledge.

Meet at business networking events

Global networking – attend offline networking events.
Events are run by Ecademy and approved Ecademy regional leaders.
Run your own business networking events to become more visible.
Get to know people face-to-face – not just online.

On the basis that ‘people do business with people’, Ecademy provides opportunities to connect with larger groups of people, in different locations, to place adverts, to start groups and to promote offers to contacts.

HINT: It may be an imposition to ask people to recommend you on both LinkedIn and Ecademy. Pick
the network that suits your style and needs best and concentrate on developing your profile there.

Q 21. What is Second Life?


Second Life is a three-dimensional virtual world available via the internet. Developed by Linden Lab and
launched in 2003, it can be accessed through free software that allows its users, aged 18+, known as ‘residents’, to interact with each other. Residents create their own ‘avatar’ (a cartoon-like representation of themselves) and can build, buy and trade property. Single basic accounts in Second Life are free; premium accounts (required for buying land) start at $9.95 per month. The local Second Life currency, known as Linden dollars, must be pre-purchased. With companies becoming more aware of their carbon footprint, Second Life has developed as a space for online collaboration, virtual meetings, events and training programmes. This is ideal for sales teams in different locations discussing new product development. However, the real business opportunity in Second Life may be saving time – for example, in concept and product testing, where you can invite a group of residents to look at an idea, comment and generate feedback.

HINT: Due to the power requirements of the graphics used in Second Life, you need a reasonably up-to-
date computer to run the software.

Q 22. What can Second Life do for our business?


Several major companies, such as Michelin, 20th Century Fox, Disney and Xerox, have established and grown significant presences in Second Life. They are working in Second Life in a wide variety of ways: holding meetings, conducting training, building product prototypes and simulating business situations. Other giant technology companies like Intel and IBM have saved money by holding conferences via Second Life. At the other end of the scale, PR Smith, marketing consultant and best-selling business author, sells more virtual t-shirts online in Second Life than real t-shirts offline.
Elsewhere:
• Computer brands like Dell sell PCs and Mazda has given away concept cars in Second Life.
• Sporting groups such as Adidas Reebok sell branded clothing in Second Life for users’ avatars, generating real income.
• Sky News has a virtual newsroom to show behind the scenes and how the news is made.
• Educational organisations such as Harvard Law School use Second Life to hold lectures and seminars
through the internet.
• Museums and tourist destinations such as the Eiffel Tower and Temple Bar in Dublin have created copies
of their real life locations to encourage additional visitors.
• 20th Century Fox held a premiere for X-Men: The Last Stand in Second Life and University College Dublin’s
James Joyce Library has established the first Irish library in Second Life.
Second Life seems to have most benefit as a public relations tool. Larger organisations with dedicated marketing
teams could integrate Second Life into their digital marketing strategy, while smaller companies may struggle to
dedicate the time needed to establish their brand in Second Life.

Q 23. What is YouTube?


YouTube is a video-sharing website where users can upload and share videos. YouTube is owned by Google and
videos posted to YouTube can be viewed via the internet through websites, mobile phones, blogs and email.
It started as a website to share videos with friends and family but, over time, YouTube has grown to be a place
where brands can promote themselves and smaller companies can compete with bigger organisations.
Video-sharing has many advantages for smaller businesses:
• Production costs have dropped dramatically with the advent of hand-held mini video cameras like
the ‘Flip’.
• The cost of adding video messages to a website has disappeared with YouTube.
• Your message can be shared with millions of people.
• It is easy to upload video to news websites.
Flip video cameras allow you to make and upload videos cheaply. From $100, with software available to
download from their website, the Flip is simple to use – just flip the USB stick on the side of the camera and plug
into the USB port on your computer. Your computer and your camera will start communicating and will
automatically download your movies. Or, many newer digital cameras have a video mode, which can be used to
record simple videos.

Q24 What can YouTube do for our business?


Businesses can use YouTube in many different ways:
Ways to use YouTube Products Services Charities
Demonstrate how products work 
Share instructions on ‘how to’
Upload latest adverts 
Get viewers to vote on preferred adverts 
Test market new products / services 
Demonstrate expertise 
Start campaigns 
Share latest appeals 
Share latest news
Show the latest techniques 
Film AGMs and other meetings and share with people who could not attend 
Provide ‘sneak peeks’ of new products or services 
Highlight latest fashions 
Give stories a ‘human face’
Encourage fans or supporters to upload their stories
Upload testimonials from clients
Recruitstaff using a video job advert 
YouTube can save you time and money. Any situation where your company receives telephone calls or emails
from people asking “How do we do this?” or “Can you tell me what this looks like?” can be turned in to a simple
video and posted online. Just sign up to YouTube, free of charge, and upload videos to your company channel.
Once created and uploaded, your videos can be inserted into your company’s blog or onto its website. For
example, Sugar Cubes Ponies, which sells children’s clothing, has created a video, which was uploaded to
YouTube, embedded onto its website and also into its blog.
HINT: Make sure your YouTube video is no more than two minutes long – most viewers’ attention span
is quite short and longer downloads can be problematic unless the viewer has a fast internet
connection.

Q25 What are social bookmarking sites?


Social bookmarking websites help internet users to organise, manage and share web pages.
You can save links to sites that you might want to revisit onto bookmarking sites like Delicious or StumbleUpon,
instead of creating folders on your own PC, so you can see your favourite sites from any computer.
More importantly, your bookmarks are shared with the other users of the social bookmarking site. In this way,
the site reflects the most bookmarked sites, and therefore the most popular / useful sites, which makes it a
great starting point when you are looking for good sites on a particular topic.
Social bookmarking sites include:
Site Details
AddThis A tool that allows people to bookmark and share favourite content with a button that will publish on all other bookmarking sites.

Delicious A social bookmarking service that allows users to tag, save, manage and share web pages from a centralised source.

Digg A place for people to discover and share content from anywhere on the web.
Reddit A source for what’s new and popular on the web. Users provide all the content and vote on what’s good and what’s not.

Share This A tool that allows people to bookmark and share favourite content with a button that will publish on all other bookmarking sites.

StumbleUpon A site that delivers high-quality pages matched to your personal preferences. These pages have been
recommended by your friends or one of 8 million+ other web surfers with similar interests.
Technorati Not exactly a bookmarking site, but the first blog search engine, Technorati has expanded to include sharing and bookmarking.

You can share your bookmarks on these sites or recommend them to others. When you save a page, it is given a
‘tag’. The site uses these tags to post listings of sites that contain particular tags.
Bookmarking sites can be useful to your business because:
• Search engines index tags and the links attached to the tags – a great way of improving your ranking in
search results.
• Social bookmarking sites can direct traffic to your website.
• People sharing tags may visit your website, when they find it listed under a specific tag of interest to
them.
When creating your website or writing blog posts, you may wish to:
• Include ‘share this’ or ‘add this’ buttons so that your content can be
bookmarked.

Q26 What is blogging and how do we start?


Blogging is like writing a diary or journal online. The name comes from a contraction of ‘weblog’. You can use a
blog to share information about your business online, through a blog or a micro blog (for example, Twitter).
A blog article can be a sentence, paragraph or a page. It can include photos, video files (vodcasts) and sound files
(podcasts). This allows you to post product reviews and demonstrations, as well as comments about your
business and its products and services.
There are several free websites where you can register and choose templates to start a blog, such as Blogger
and WordPress. You do not need to buy a domain name, since you can create a name that usually combines the
name of your blog with the free blogging site as a suffix – for example, our blog is
whitehatblogs.com. Alternatively, you can map your blog onto a domain name that you
have already bought. You also can incorporate blogging software into your existing website, so that your blog is
part of, and not separate from, your company website.
Blogs are a less formal customer communication than a website. They can include opinions and reviews and can
influence conversations about your company. Blogs are usually open to feedback, which is a great source of
soliciting customers’ comments, which then (hopefully) positively influence other potential customers.
As you create blogs online, directly through the blogging website with no special PC-based software needed, you
can add – or post – a new blog article from anywhere in the world.

HINT: Several people in your organisation can be blog ‘authors’, which means you can share the work,
perhaps each person preparing a ‘post’ every two weeks.

Q27 How do we use blogging to market our business / products / services?


A blog can:
• Highlight your business’s expertise in its industry sector.
• Share information about latest news or views.
• Provide details on how your products or services work.
• Include instructions, manuals, guides or tips.
• Give the background to PR stories from your staff’s perspective.
• Provide useful information or advice.
Here’s how a blog could be used in your business, for example:
Sector How you can use a blog
Professional services To add legal updates, or to provide checklists (for employing new staff, preparing your tax
return) or views from staff – see http://business2businessmarketing.blogspot.com.
Website / IT To share latest technology news, or to give examples of how clients are using your services

– see http://softwareandsupport.blogspot.com.

Medical To provide guidelines, information, useful links and how to get help, including patients’

own stories – see http://talk.nhs.uk/blogs/.

Travel / holidays To add photos, testimonials, video footage, or latest offers – see
http://www.shropshirebreakfast.co.uk/ stories.aspx?catID=19.
Products To show the product in action, what it can do and where it is used – see

http://www.icecreamireland.com.

Retail To showcase products, to capture customer comments and to share trends – see

http://sugarcubesponies.blogspot.com/.

Design To share news and tips about latest interior design trends and events-see

http://designagreement.blogspot.com.

The real power of blogs for businesses include:
• Google likes up-to-the minute stories and sees blogs as a rich source of news. Itsees your latest blog posting
within a few hours – but can take weeks to index a new item on your website.
• Blogs are interactive, as readers can make comments on what you have written, although you have the
power to decide whether to publish, edit or reject the comments.
• Your information can be shared with a much wider audience – potentially, new customers – as people
find you online and send the link to friends or share via Twitter.
As well as creating your own blog, you can also contribute to other blogs. Both Google and Bing search engines
include a blog search facility. If you find blogs that talk about your product or service, you can get involved in the
conversation.

HINT: When blogging, whether on your own blog or commenting on a post on someone else’s, consider
before typing. Once you have pressed the submit key, you have very little opportunity to retract or edit
what you have said, your words potentially remaining online forever as an embarrassment to you or
your business.

See also
Q7 What is Twitter?
Q26 What is blogging and how do we start?

Q29 What are landing pages and how do we use them?
Q52 How can we post our own videos onto our website / blog?
Q99 How can we make money on our website / blog?

Q28 What is podcasting and how can we use it in our business?


A podcast is an audio file (usually in .MPG or .WAV format), which can be added to your website, blog, used in
place of ‘music on hold’ on your telephone system or emailed to your customers. A podcast can be a one-off or
can be a series of episodes covering specific topics – for example, ‘How to implement digital marketing in your
business in six easy steps’.
Before you start podcasting, you need to consider:
• What are you talking about – and why?
• Who is your audience – and why will they want to listen to you?
• Whether your podcast should be a monologue, an interview or a live production?
• What equipment do you have?
Basic podcasts can be produced using a simple digital voice recorder. More sophisticated podcasts require better
quality recording equipment – for example, a Marantz recorder with a separate microphone. You can use
software like Epodcast Expressto convert your audio files for podcasting.
Before podcasting, make sure that your message meets your company’s brand values. It is great if your staff can
be involved too, but ensure they are aware of what the company stands for, so that they deliver the right
message.
You can get training in podcasting from the appropriately-named Podcast Training.

Q29 What are landing pages and how do we use them?


Landing pages, also called ‘lead capture’ pages, are pages in your website that appear when a customer arrives
to your site from a specific link on another site – for example, from the link, www.whitehatblogs.com/Mayoffer or
www.whitehatblogs.com/Twitter.
Landing pages usually bypass your website’s homepage and direct the visitor or customer to a specific page, so
that you can:
• Measure the volume of traffic from specific websites, links or adverts.
• Measure the effectiveness of different adverts to see which generate greater interest and / or sales.
• Provide customised messages or offers.
The style of a landing page depends on your objectives. Do you want it to:
• Welcome specific visitors with a personalised message – for example, “Welcome, Twitter follower” for
your Twitter followers who have clicked on a link in one of your tweets?
• Provide more information about your products orservicesthan you provide elsewhere on your website?
• Ask potential customers to buy something – perhaps a specific model of a product or the product at a
special price that includes some accessories?
• Give you some information about a particular type of customer / potential customer?
Whenever a visitor first comes to your website, you only have a few seconds to hold onto them – especially on a
landing page – so don’t include unnecessary information. Get your core message across quickly. You can always
direct the visitor to look at other pages on your website later.

HINT: Create landing pages if you use Twitter or LinkedIn to see how much traffic these sites direct to
your website.

See also
Q7 What is Twitter?

Q30 What are content management systems and how do we use them?


Traditionally, websites were created by a technical team and, when you needed to add or delete information,
you had to contact (and pay) them. However, a content management system (CMS) allows you to:
• Maintain and update your own website without technical intervention.
• Add content including text, videos, news articles, images, etc.
• View visitor statistics and make changes to your website as needed.
You need a content management system if:
• You need to update your website on a regular basis.
• You have news items to add to the home page when you’re away.
• You want to add new photos or information to your website.
• You want to add / delete pages from your website.
Most good CMSs are accessible online. This means you can change your website from anywhere in the world,
you don’t need to be sitting at your own computer.
Some blogging tools like Blogger and WordPress are effectively CMSs. We think they’re great to use as blogging
tools, but harder to use to establish proper websites – although it can be done, if you’re prepared to accept
some lack of flexibility and functionality in return for ease of build and use.
Joomla is possibly the best known Open Source CMS. The downside is that it requires a degree of technical
understanding to use; the upside is that it is free of charge.
At Evonomie, we use PageMasterPRO developed by StarDigital as our CMS, since it’s easy-to-use and reliable.
See also
Q25 What are social bookmarking sites?
Q34 How can we build websites ourselves without using a web designer?
Q88 How can we monitor and measure online traffic?

Q31 What is mobile marketing and how can we use it to market our business / products / services?


Mobile marketing is marketing via mobile devices such as phone and internet. Methods of delivering mobile
marketing campaigns include text messages (SMS), picture / audio messages (MMS) and mobile internet (WAP).
The main advantage of mobile marketing is that most people have mobile phones, which are always switched on
and close to the owner (research suggests that people are more likely to leave home without their purse / wallet
than their mobile phone).
Mobile marketing can be used in different ways, depending on the customer group and your marketing
objective:
Customer group /
Marketing objective

Ways to use mobile marketing

To acquire new customers Sales promotion offers – for example, “Text this number to receive a money-off voucher”.
To retain existing
customers

Special offers to customers via text messages.

To provide better
customer service

Information about time-critical issues, such as flight arrivals; reminders about appointments –
for example, dental appointments, hair salons, etc.
Issues to be addressed before you start a mobile marketing campaign include:
• Checking the person is eligible to receive the information. It is essential to ask customers to ‘opt-in’ and
state that they would like to receive information from you.
• Deciding how you collect the necessary mobile phone numbers. You can capture mobile telephone
numbers via your website, in person or over the telephone, ensuring in each case that the customer has
agreed to receive marketing or information messages from you. Alternatively, you can buy a list from a
mobile marketing list broker, but do check the source of the broker’s lists.
• Deciding whether or what the customer is charged for the text or picture. Deciding how to stop sending
messages if the customer requests this.
• Exploring how to create compelling messages with limited text (SMS messages are limited to 160
characters).
Companies that collect individuals’ mobile phone numbers or other personal information need to be registered
with the Information Commissioner (UK) or Data Protection Commissioner (Ireland) and must comply with the
relevant legislation to ensure they protect their customers’ data.
The Mobile Marketing Association has chapters in the UK and Ireland, where you can network with others
interested in mobile marketing.

HINT: Get professional help when setting up a mobile campaign – it’s easy to fall foul of the law, which
will cost you time and money.

See also
Q65 How can we use SMS to contact customers / potential customers?

Q32 Why are search engine rankings important?


Just as you probably do yourself, customers and potential customers use the internet to:
• Gather information about products and services from suppliers before purchase.
• Review comments made by other customers (for example, TripAdvisor).
• Help them make product purchasing decisions (eBay rating scales).
• Add their own feedback about products and services.
They start by typing your company name, brand, product / service category or location into a search engine,
such as Google, Yahoo!, Bing or Dmoz. These search engines search across the millions of websites on the
WWW based on the search terms and present back the results, in an order they believe most closely meets the
searcher’s needs. Most people look no further than the first page or two of search results before deciding they
have all the information they need, or they search again.
Websites that are ‘optimised’ have a greater chance of being found in the first page or two of search results,
which increases the likelihood of websurfers clicking through to them and thus the potential for sales.
A study in August 2009 by the National E-learning Laboratory on behalf of Mulley Communications showed that
Irish users who use Google to search only pay attention to the first THREE results and that many users preferred
to use Google Search to navigate to another site rather than type the site’s URL in the address bar.
Sites like Search Engine Watch and Search Engine Guide explain how search engines operate and how you can
optimise your website to improve your search engine ‘ranking’.
Each of the following search engines provides online advice on submitting your site to them:
• Google: http://www.google.com/addurl.
• Bing: http://www.bing.com/docs/submit.aspx.
• Yahoo!: http://siteexplorer.search.yahoo.com/submit.
• Dmoz: http://www.dmoz.org/add.html.

HINT: You can also submit videos, slide presentations and pictures to search engines.

See also
Q3 What is search engine optimisation?
Q44 How do we get higher / better search rankings?
Q45 How do we choose keywords / keyphrases for our website / blog?

Q33 What are the basic rules of website usability?


Website users include people with visual, hearing, physical, speech, cognitive, neurological and other disabilities.
You must cater for them as well as other users. In addition, we live in a world where the population generally is aging, so it is important to consider that, as people become older, their eyesight, memory, hearing and dexterity may be reduced. To ensure your website is universally accessible, you should consider the following:
Usability rule Example
Simple content Keep content simple and easy-to-read.
Clear navigation Make sure users can navigate easily around the site and find their way back to the home page at the press of their mouse button.

Text alternatives Offer larger print or sound files to help users to read a page.
Keyboard
alternatives Offer alternatives such as mouse-controlled pages.

Easy-to-see screen Some colours are hard to see on screen, and customers with colour blindness may see nothing at all if you have green text on a red background! Separate foreground from background or provide
alternatives; allow the user to change backgrounds.

Alternatives to images

The ALT or alternative text for an image should describe what is being shown as text readers can
select and read ALT text. Be descriptive with your ALT text.

Alternatives to Flash or plug-ins Any information in Flash or other plug-ins also should be offered in plain HTML.

Eliminate
distractions

Keep your site free from pop-ups and other distractions that can confuse visitors.

HINT: The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) sets standards for web design. Good web designers will
already be aware of these guidelines. Ask for examples of sites they have done and ask how they have
incorporated website usability.

See also
Q1 Where do we start with digital marketing?
Q34 How can we build websites ourselves without using a web designer?
Q35 What contact information must appear at a minimum on our website / blog?

“Google only loves you when everyone else loves you first.” 

– Wendy Piersall

These Digital Marketing Interview Questions and Answers will support you in get that dream job in Digital Marketing.